Johanniskraut Oil Cream For Irritated And Dry Skin

Manufaktur PUR Johanniskraut and Colloidal Oatmeal Cream is formulated to relieve the symptoms of dry and irritated skin. The Johanniskraut is grown and harvested at the permaculture project being conducted by Manufaktur PUR in Sachsen.

Two components of the cream that provide it with its soothing properties are Johanniskraut oil and colloidal oatmeal. Both of these ingredients have been known to have a positive effect on relieving skin irritation since antiquity. However, it has not been until the development of modern analytical methods that the mechanism responsible for the effects that the ancients have observed have been able to be conclusively explained.

Two bioactive components that are found in Johanniskraut that have been shown to relieve irritation in several studies are Hyperforin and Hypericin [1-5]. These two components along with many other additional secondary metabolites are extracted from the Johanniskraut flowers through a maceration process and the oil is used to make the cream. The traditional method for producing Johanniskraut oil is to place the Johanniskraut in a glass jar filled with olive oil and place the jar in a sunny location, such as a window sill. However, through the research conducted by Heinrich et al., it has been determined that Almond oil is more effective at extracting the secondary metabolites from the plant material than olive oil [6]. In addition, lighting conditions and temperature play a role in the concentration of secondary metabolites that are extracted [7]. The maceration conditions that have been chosen for the production of the johanniskraüt oil are 40°C in a darkened container. According to the data of Heinrich et al., these conditions should have the most favorable effect on the concentration of secondary metabolites in the johanniskrautöl. The increase in temperature to 40°C over that of room temperature has the most significant effect on the hypericin concentration (and increase of approximately 86% ) in the johanniskraütöl compared to the other secondary metabolites that were investigated.[7]

Would healing effects have also been observed when Johanniskraut oil has been applied to areas of the epidermis which have become damaged through various processes [5,8]. Investigation into the mechanism of action has revealed that the wound-healing activity of Hypericum perforatum extract seems to be mainly due to the increase in the stimulation of fibroblast collagen production and the activation of fibroblast cells in polygonal shape which play a role in wound repair by closing damaged area [9,10].

Colloidal Oatmeal has been shown to be effective in relieving the symptoms of epidermal aliments such as xerosis [11], atopical dermatitis [12] and psoriasis [13]. It has been hypothesized that the demonstrated ability of collodial oatmeal to relieve itch and alliviate moderate to severe dry skin while improving the stratum corneum function is attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity [14]. The ability of colloidal oatmeal to be effective against epidermal aliments that are accompanied by irritation appears to be due to its ability to disrupt several processes that lead to inflammation. An investigation of these mechanisms has been conducted by Reynertson et al., and the details are discussed in their publication [14].

In addition to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, colloidal oatmeal has demonstrated an ability to reduce transepidermal water loss (TEWL). This is due to the presence in oats of the polysaccharides starch and beta-glucan [15,16] which have the ability to retain moisture. When colloidal oatmeal is dispersed in water it deposits fine particles on the skin and forms a viscous occlusive barrier. The polysaccharide beta-glucan exhibits viscosities in solutions that can exceed those of other biological hydrocolloids and significantly contribute to the water-binding properties of oats. The occlusive and water-binding colloidal film holds moisture in the stratum corneum thus improving dry skin conditions [14].

References

1) L. Dellafiora, G. Galaverna, G. Cruciani, C. Dall’Asta, R. Bruni, „On the Mechanism of Action of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Hypericin: An In Silico Study Pointing to the Relevance of Janus Kinases Inhibition“, Molecules, 23(12), 2018, 3058

2) E. Tedeschi, M. Menegazzi, D. Margotto, H. Suzuki, U. Förstermann, H. Kleinert „Anti-Inflammatory Actions of St. John’s Wort: Inhibition of Human Inducible Nitric-Oxide Synthase Expression by Down-Regulating Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-1 (STAT-1 ) Activation“ J Pharmacol Exp Ther., 307(1), 2003, 254-61

3) A. Koeberle, A. Rossi, J. Bauer, F. Dehm, L. Verotta, H. Northoff, L. Sautebin, O. Werz „Hyperforin, an anti-inflammatory constituent from St. John’s wort, inhibits microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 and suppresses prostaglandin E2 formation in vivo“, Front Pharmacol. 2011 Feb 18;2:7

4) M. Berköz, O. Allahverdiyev, M. Yildirim „Investigation of the effect of Hyperforin and hypericin on inflammatory response in RAW 264-7 Micropflanges“, Van Tip Dre, 25(2), 2018, 124-131

5) U. Wölfle, G. Seelinger, C. M. Schempp „Topical application of St. Johns Wort (Hypericum preforatum)“, Planta Med., 80(2-3), 2014, 109-20

6) M. Heinrich, V. Vikuk, R. Daniels, F. C. Stintzing, D. R. Kammerer, „Characterization of Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John’s wort) macerates prepared with different fatty oils upon processing and storage“ Phytochemistry Letters, 20, 2017, 470-480

7) M. Heinrich, R. Daniels, F. C. Stintzing, D. R. Kammerer, „Comprehensive phytochemical characterization of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) oil macerates obtained by different extraction protocols via analytical tools applicable in routine control“ Pharmazie., 72(3), 2017, 131-138.

8) S. Samadi, T. Khadivzadeh, A. Emami, N. S. Moosavi, M. Tafaghodi, H. R. Behnam, „The Effect of Hypericum perforatum on the Wound Healing and Scar of Cesarean“, J Altern Complement Med., 16(1), 2010, 113-7.

9) N. Oztürk, S. Korkmaz, Yusuf Oztürk, „Wound healing activity of St. Johns Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) on chicken embryonic fribroblasts“, J Ethnopharmacol., 111(1), 2007, 33-9

10) M. Dikmen, Y. Oztürk, G. Sagratini, M. Ricciutelli, S. Vittori, F. Maggi, „Evaluation of the Wound Healing Potentials of Two Subspecies of Hypericum perforatum on Cultured NIH3T3 Fibroblasts“, Phytother Res., 25(2), 2011, 208-14

11) A. N. Kalaaji, W. Wallo „A randomized controlled clinical study to evaluate the effectiveness of an active moisturizing lotion with colloidal oatmeal skin protectant versus its vehicle for the relief of xerosis“, J Drugs Dermatol. 13(10), 2014, 1265-8. PMID: 25607563.

12) Allais B, Friedman A. „ARTICLE: Colloidal Oatmeal Part II: Atopic Dermatitis in Special Populations and Clinical Efficacy and Tolerance Beyond Eczema“, J Drugs Dermatol.19(10), 2020, s8-s11

13) J.F. Fowler Jr, H. Woolery-Lloyd, H. Waldorf, R. Saini „Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care“, J Drugs Dermatol. (6 Suppl), 2010, S72-81; quiz s82-3

14) K. A. Reynertson, M. Garay, J. Nebus, S. Chon, S. Kaur, K. Mahmood, M. Kizoulis, M. D. Southall, „Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Colloidal Oatmeal (Avena sativa) Contribute to the Effectiveness of Oats in Treatment of Itch Associated With Dry, Irritated Skin“, J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(1):43-48.

15) L. Z. Wang and P. J. White. „Structure and physicochemical properties of starches from oats with different Lipid contents“, Cereal Chem. 71, 1994, 443-450

16) A. Ahmad, F. M. Anjum, T. Zahoor, H. Nawaz, Z. Ahmed, „Extraction and characterization of beta-D-glucan from oat for industrial utilization“, Int J Biol Macromol. 46(3), 2010, 304-9.

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